nabisco backgammon
nabisco backgammon

nabisco backgammon

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Backgammon History
The backgammon betting Origins of Backgammon
Backgammon is believed to have originated in Mesopotamia in
the Persian empire or the present day Iran, Iraq, and Syria and it is backgammon site the
oldest known recorded game in history. The game nabisco backgammon was typically played on
surfaces such as wood, using nabisco stones free online backgammon as markers, and dice made from bones,
stones, wood or pottery and it can be traced back thousands of years BC to
boardgames played by the Egyptians, Sumerians, Romans, and Persians.
Artifacts Revealed
A Senat Game Board
Throughout the history of the backgammon instructions game it backgammon accessory has
been associated with the leaders and aristocracy of these ancient civilizations
as shown by excavated relics and literary references from Persia, Greece, Rome,
and the Far East. Gaming boards with 3x10, 3x12, and 3x6 squares were found in
Egypt and it was known as backgammon the Game backgammon download freeware of Thirty Squares or Senat. These
artifacts date back to 3000-1788BC and the rules nabisco backgammon as well as the use of dice for
this game remain unknown. Wooden boards were found in the royal tomb of the Ur
al online backgammon game Chaldees, the center of Sumer dated around 2600BC along with tetrahedral
dice and are known as The Royal Games of
Ur. A set nabisco of rules for the game played at that time backgammon accessory was found on some
cuneiform tablet dated at about 177BC.
The Royal nabisco backgammon Game of Ur
Roman Backgammon
Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum
The Romans left evidence of a game called Ludus
Duodecim Scriptorum "The Game of 12 Lines" with leather boards and sets
of 30 play backgammon online free markers, 15 of ebony and 15 of ivory dating back to 600AD and is thought
to doubling cube be derived from the nabisco Egyptian Senat. In the 1st Century AD Ludus Duodecim
Scriptorum was replaced by a vairant with 2x12 lines instead of 3x12 lines as
it grew closer and closer to nabisco backgammon todays version. The game came to Britain with the
Roman conquest in the 1st Century and was backgammon download freeware also referred to as Tabula,
a generic name for the board on which it was played. nabisco backgammon This pastime was quite
popular and a favored game by Emporor Claudius. About 50 AD, Claudius backgammon real money backgammon wrote a
history of the game of play65 Tabula which, unfortunately, has not survived. His
imperial carriage was equipped with an alveus, a Tabula playing board, so that
he could play while travelling. Tabula is also the game which was primarily
responsible for the gambling mania which swept Rome prior to its being declared
illegal under the Republic. The fine for gambling at any other time except nabisco the
Saturnalia was four backgammon site times the stakes, although this law was only weakly and
sporadically enforced. By the 6th Century the game was called play65 Alea, backgammon "the art of
gambling with dice". Alea was likely the first precursor to contemporary
backgammon although there were many vaiations regarding starting positions and
movment.
Backgammon in Asia
In Asia a download nabisco backgammon play65 game called "Nard" appeared prior to 800AD in
southwest Asia or Persia. Nard was played backgammon accessory in a similar fashion as Alea and used
only 2 die to move markers. nabisco backgammon Also referred to as Nardshir, Nardeeshir, and
Nard-i-shir, with "Nard" was the Persian name for wood product like the board
on which it was played. The game was also called "Takhteh Nard" meaning "battle
on wood". An ancient writing describing the symbolism free backgammon game download of the game reveals
that:
The board represents a year; each side contains 12
points for months of the year; the twenty-four points represent the hours in a
day; nabisco the 30 checkers represent days of the month; the sum backgammon site of opposing sides of
the die represent nabisco backgammon the backgammon 7 days fo the week; the contrasting colors of each set of
checkers represent day and night.
Ancient Dice
T'shu-p'u was the Chinese name for Nard
thought to be invented in Western nabisco backgammon play motif backgammon India and arived in China during the Wei
dynasty (220-265AD) and was popular from 479-1000AD, while the Japanese called
it "Sugoroku". Nard introduced into Europe backgammon type via Italy or Spain following Arab
occupation of Sicily in 902AD. The term "Tabula" was used by several cultures
making it likely that the game was widespread by the Roman Empire while "Nard"
was similarly spread thoughout Asia by the backgammon Arabs. The Arabian game Nard appears
to be a slightly modifed version of Tabula, perhaps incorporating aspects of
Egyptian Senat. The main difference between backgammon the two versions was that Tabula
used 3 dice while Nard online nabisco backgammon backgammon game used 2. The use of 2 dice for Tabula later became
increasingly popular.
Backgammon's Proliferation and Standardization
TricTrac Painting
The first mention in English print was in backgammon for money The Codex
Exoniensis "These two shall sit at tables..." in 1025 as Nard or "Tables" was
played throughout the middle ages backgammon and was popular in English taverns. Chess
overtook backgammon club Tables in popularity around the 15th Century. The game nabisco backgammon was play backgammon online evne banned
for some time due to its prevalent gambling nature until the reign of Elizabeth
I. In fact, the game enjoyed popularity in several countries under different
names including: yahoo backgammon backdoor Tavola Reale (Italy), Tables Reales (Spain), Tavli (Greece),
Tavla
(Turkey), yahoo backgammon Tric
Trac (France), Backgammon or Tables (Britain), Puff (Germany), Vrhcaby
(Czech), and Swan-liu (China). The term "Backgammon" is said to have nabisco backgammon been
derived in backgammon 1645 from either the Saxon "baec" (back) "gamen" (game) or the Welsh
"bac" or "bach" (little) "gammon" or backgammon variety "cammaun" (battle) with the first being
more likely. Yet another theory was that it received it's name because it was
frequently nabisco backgammon found on the "back" of chessboards, although backgammon board set up this too is unlikely.
By this time Tabula using 2 dice adopting the rule of free online backgammon playing doubles twice was
much like the contemporary version with the exception of the doubling cube and
the nabisco counting of gammons and backgammons. In 1743 Edmond Hoyle codified the
rules of play backgammon club with his Treatise on Backgammon, the first official set of modern
rules in existence.
Hoyle's Treatise on Backgmmon
The Modern History of Backgammon
1920-1960
The doubling cube was believed to
be introduced in New York in the 1920's by some unknown gambler which enhanced
the travel backgammon set element of skill in the game free backgammon game increasing its marketability, insuring its
place as a popular pastime. nabisco backgammon The game backgammon was mostly limited to the upper class in
private clubs although several introductory backgammon publications burst onto
the scene. The nabisco backgammon backgammon rules were modified in 1931 in
the U.S. to what generally governs the game today. There was somewhat of a
decline in popularity during the depression and a nabisco light resurgence play backgammon online in the
1940's which saw a few more texts
published although backgammon board setup no real advances in skill. Interest decreased again during
WWII.
Oby's Backgammon Book
1960-1990
The popularity of
backgammon increased during the 1960's with the efforts of Prince Alexis
Obelensky (Oby) who organized and promoted tournaments and the first "Official"
World Championships in the backgammon book Bahamas becoming
backgammon's highest honor which holds true today. A prolific publishing trend
of backgammon books was started with "Backgammon: The Action Game" nabisco backgammon by Oby
himself. The 1970's have been frequently backgammon backgammon freeware described as backgammon's "Heyday" as
it saw huge increases in popularity, publicity, tournaments and backgammon
literature including books, magazines, and newspaper columns. It moved from the
upper to middle classes and was popular backgammon for money among the younger generation as well.
Tournament purses play backgammon online soared into 6 digit sums and its popularity was widespread
throughout the US and Europe. Several great introductory texts came out
including "The Backgammon Book" by
Jacoby & Crawford, "Backgammon: The Cruelest
Game" by Cooke & Bradshaw, which paved the way for more advanced
tomes such as online backgammon game "Backgammon for Profit" by
Dwek and the Classic "Backgammon" by
Magriel referred to by many as the "bible of backgammon". The 1980's however
saw a decline in popularity again mostly among online backgammon rules the younger generation likely
due to the advent of video games and the excitement to young minds internet backgammon game that they
can provide. Interest in learning the intricacies of the game was as strong as
ever for the players that remained and was bolstered by the invention of
computer backgammon which could not only provide a decent opponent but more
importantly they could save hours of time by performing rollouts of positions
giving players a chouette deeper understanding of the game.
Jellyfish
1990-Present
The computer revolution
continued in full force as Gerald Tesauro of IBM wrote software which could
teach itself how to play backgammon using Neural Networking creating party gammon a world
class player in TD-Gammon. FIBS (First
Internet Backgammon Server) was created in 1993 by zone.com backgammon Andreas Schneider and hosted
on an academic computer in Sweden for free. Over 100 players with internet
connections could be found playing at backgammon tournaments any one time with the ability to save
matches, watch matches and compare playing strengths via a rating system.
Frederic Dahl of Norway created the first commercial neural net backgammon
software with Jellyfish which could
assign equity values to any position and rollout positions like never before.
Bot players appeared on FIBS and a backgammon newsgroup appeared at rec.games.backgammon
where players could go and discuss all things backgammon.
Snowie
Olivier Egger introduced Snowie, a more commercially popular
backgammon software with a user-friendly interface and the ability to import
and analyze matches still considered todays standard. The latest development in
backgammon software, GNU
Backgammon, will likely give these others a run for their money as it
is based on Open Source making it free for download and improvement by
programmers. Several serious backgammon books appeared by the likes of Kleinman, Robertie, and Woolsey and our body of knowledge and use of
backgammon software has become so advanced that most recent books describe
concepts and positions backed up by computer rollouts such as those by Bagai (who actually corrects mistakes make in
previous books) and Wiggins. Backgammon
has acheived somewhat of a steady state with several tournaments throughout the
US and Europe being well attended. The internet provides several backgammon
servers who enjoy clientele among the thousands and the web has given birth to
a multitude of backgammon resources such as the one you are at now.
Considerable thanks go out to Chuck Bower and Mark Driver who both wrote
excellent articles at GammOnline, and to the creators of
the various websites that I have linked to for their research and dissemination
of Backgammon's rich history.
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